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Spaniel
English-springer-spaniel-picture
A Spaniel is a type of gun dog. Spaniels may have arrived in the British Isles during Caesar’s invasion (54-55 BC). It is assumed spaniels originated from Spain as the word spaniel may be derived from Hispania (Spain) or possibly from the French phrase "Chiens de l’Espagnol" (Dogs of the Spaniard). Spaniels were especially bred to flush game out of dense brush. By the late 1600’s spaniels had become specialized into water and land breeds. The extinct English Water Spaniel was used to retrieve water fowl shot down with arrows. Land spaniels were setting spaniels—those that crept forward and pointed their game allowing hunters to ensnare them with nets, and springing spaniels—those that sprang pheasants and partridges for hunting with falcons, and rabbits for hunting with greyhounds. During the 17th century, the role of the spaniel dramatically changed as Englishmen began hunting with flintlocks for wing shooting. Goodall & Gasow (1984), write the spaniels were "transformed from untrained, wild beaters, to smooth, polished gun dogs."

Spaniels are generally small dogs with long coats and drop ears. Spaniels assist in bird hunting.

In assisting hunters, it is desirable that Spaniels work within gun range, are steady to shot, are able to mark the fall and retrieve shot game to hand with a soft mouth. A good nose is highly valued, as it is in most gun dog breeds. They are versatile hunters traditionally being used for upland game birds, but are equally adept at hunting rabbit and waterfowl. Whether hunting in open fields, woodlands, farm lands - in briars, along fencerows or marshlands, a spaniel can get the job done.

On the basis of function and hunting style, the Fédération Cynologique Internationale (FCI) draws a distinction between continental and Anglo-American spaniels. FCI places continental dogs of the spaniel type in the pointing group (Group 7, sect. 1.2) because they function more like setters which "freeze" and point to game. Breeds in this group include the Blue Picardy Spaniel, the French Spaniel, the Brittany, the Pont-Audemer Spaniel, and the Small Münsterländer. FCI classifies most other dogs of the spaniel type as flushing or water dogs (Group 8, sections 2 and 3).

Not much has changed about spaniels in general over the years, as can be seen in this 1921 entry in Collier's New Encyclopedia:

Their distinguishing characteristics are a rather broad muzzle, remarkably long and full ears, hair plentiful and beautifully waved, particularly that of the ears, tail, and hinder parts of the thighs and legs. The prevailing color is liver and white, sometimes red and white or black and white, and sometimes deep brown, or black on the face and breast, with a tan spot over each eye. The English spaniel is a superior and very pure breed. The King Charles is a small variety of the spaniel used as a lapdog. The water spaniels, large and small, differ from the common spaniel only in the roughness of their coats, and in uniting the aquatic propensities of the Newfoundland dog with the fine hunting qualities of their own race. Spaniels possess a great share of intelligence, affection, and obedience, which qualities, combined with much beauty, make them highly prized as companions.

Breeds Edit

Type of Spaniel  [1] Also Known As  [2] Country of Origin  [3] Min. Height  [4] Max. Height  [5] Min. Weight  [6] Max. Weight  [7] Image  [8]
American Cocker Spaniel Cocker Spaniel (in the United States) United States 13 in (33 cm) 15 in (38 cm) 24 lb (11 kg) 29 lb (13 kg) [9]
American Water Spaniel United States 15 in (38 cm) 18 in (46 cm) 25 lb (11 kg) 45 lb (20 kg) [10]
Boykin Spaniel United States 15 in (38 cm) 18 in (46 cm) 25 lb (11 kg) 45 lb (20 kg) [11]
Brittany Spaniel France 17.5 in (44 cm) 20.5 in (52 cm) 30 lb (14 kg) 40 lb (18 kg) [12]
Cavalier King Charles Spaniel England 12 in (30 cm) 13 in (33 cm) 13 lb (5.9 kg) 18 lb (8.2 kg) [13]
Clumber Spaniel England 17 in (43 cm) 20 in (51 cm) 55 lb (25 kg) 85 lb (39 kg)} [14]
English Cocker Spaniel Cocker Spaniel
(In the United Kingdom)
England 15 in (38 cm) 17 in (43 cm) 26 lb (12 kg) 34 lb (15 kg) [15]
English Springer Spaniel England 19 in (48 cm) 20 in (51 cm) 40 lb (18 kg) 50 lb (23 kg) [16]
Field Spaniel England 17 in (43 cm) 18 in (46 cm) 35 lb (16 kg) 50 lb (23 kg) [17]
French Spaniel Epagneul Français France 21 in (53 cm) 24 in (61 cm) 50 lb (23 kg) 70 lb (32 kg) [18]
German Spaniel Deutscher Wachtelhund Germany 16 in (41 cm) 20 in (51 cm) 44 lb (20 kg) 66 lb (30 kg) [19]
Irish Water Spaniel Ireland 21 in (53 cm) 24 in (61 cm) 45 lb (20 kg) 65 lb (29 kg) [20]
King Charles Spaniel English Toy Spaniel (in the United States) England 09 in (23 cm) 10 in (25 cm) 06 lb (2.7 kg) 12 lb (5.4 kg) [21]
Kooikerhondje The Netherlands 14 in (36 cm) 16 in (41 cm) 20 lb (9.1 kg) 24 lb (11 kg) [22]
Papillon Continental Toy Spaniel, Épagneul Nain Continental France 08 in (20 cm) 11 in (28 cm) 05 lb (2.3 kg) 10 lb (4.5 kg) [23]
Phalène Continental Toy Spaniel, Épagneul Nain Continental Belgium 08 in (20 cm) 11 in (28 cm) 08 lb (3.6 kg) 10 lb (4.5 kg) [24]
Picardy Spaniel Épagneul Picard France 22 in (56 cm) 23.5 in (60 cm) 44 lb (20 kg) 55 lb (25 kg) [25]
Pont-Audemer Spaniel Épagneul Pont-Audemer France 20 in (51 cm) 23 in (58 cm) 40 lb (18 kg) 53 lb (24 kg) [26]
Russian Spaniel Russia 15 in (38 cm) 18 in (46 cm) 20 lb (9.1 kg) 35 lb (16 kg) [27]
Sussex Spaniel England 13 in (33 cm) 15 in (38 cm) 35 lb (16 kg) 44 lb (20 kg) [28]
Welsh Springer Spaniel Wales 17 in (43 cm) 19 in (48 cm) 35 lb (16 kg) 55 lb (25 kg) [29]
Épagneul Bleu de Picardie Blue Picardy Spaniel France 22 in (56 cm) 24 in (61 cm) 43 lb (20 kg) 45 lb (20 kg) [30]


Edit

Type of Spaniel  [31] Country of origin  [32] Period of extinction  [33] Image  [34]
Alpine Spaniel Switzerland
Savoy
1830s [35]
English Water Spaniel United Kingdom 1930s [36]
Norfolk Spaniel United Kingdom 1902 [37]
Tweed Water Spaniel United Kingdom 1800s [38]


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The following breed is not a true spaniel, but was named as such due to its resemblance to the traditional spaniels.{|class="wikitable sortable" id="sortable_table_id_2" !Type of Spaniel  [39] !Also Known As  [40] !Country of Origin  [41] !Min. Height  [42] !Max. Height  [43] !Min. Weight  [44] !Max. Weight  [45] !Image  [46] |- |Japanese Chin |Japanese Spaniel |Japan |09 in (23 cm) |10 in (25 cm) |04 lb (1.8 kg) |11 lb (5.0 kg) |align="center"|[47] |- |Tibetan Spaniel | |Tibet |09 in (23 cm) |11 in (28 cm) |09 lb (4.1 kg) |15 lb (6.8 kg) |align="center"|[48] |}


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